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Природные ресурсы и социально-экономический прогресс

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Аннотация

В статье анализируются международные дебаты по проблемам развития ресурсных экономик. Обращается внимание на причины и механизмы так называемого "ресурсного проклятья" и признаки системных сбоев и застойных явлений в ресурсных экономиках, получивших название "голландской болезни". Особое внимание уделяется роли национальных элит и институтов в консервировании экономической отсталости и/или деиндустриализации стран, обладающих богатыми природными ресурсами. Автор рассматривает новые подходы к разрешению проблемы "ресурсного проклятья" в частности, возврат к традиционным инструментам экономической диверсификации, как индустриализация и протекционизм. Сегодня международные дебаты по индустриализации и роли промышленной политики государства возобновились с новой силой, во многом благодаря феномену Китая. Эта дискуссия была инициирована главным экономистом Всемирного банка Джастином Ифу Пином. В ней приняли участие многие известные экономисты, представители правительственных и межправительственных организаций и международного бизнеса. Анализируя итоги этой дискуссии, следует отметить, что, во-первых, участники дискуссии признали необходимость прямого участия государства в процессе развития и хозяйственной жизни. Во-вторых, они также признали факт, что рынок не смог решить проблемы экономической отсталости в большинстве развивающихся стран. В-третьих, они согласились с тем, что без индустриализации и защиты зарождающейся национальной промышленности (вплоть до введения протекционистских мер и субсидирования) слаборазвитые страны не смогут вырваться из ловушки нищеты и экономической отсталости. Более конкретно, Д. Родрик, Рикардо Хаусманн и Чарльз Сейбел предложили два типа промышленной политики для развивающихся стран: ограниченную и широкомасштабную [48].

Об авторе

Л. М. Капица
Московский государственный институт международных отношений (университет) МИД России
Россия


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Для цитирования:


Капица Л.М. Природные ресурсы и социально-экономический прогресс. Вестник МГИМО-Университета. 2014;(4(37)):168-186.

For citation:


Kapitsa L.M. Natural Resources and Socio-Economic Progress. MGIMO Review of International Relations. 2014;(4(37)):168-186. (In Russ.)

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