Science Studies

The History of Popularization of Science in France.

The article discusses the process of popularization of science in France in terms of bilateral cooperation between scientists and the media. Mediator in the relationship of the two parties is a science journalist. The long history of interaction between researchers and journalists in France can serve as a theoretical model applicable to the Russian media system. Science journalist, acting primarily as a popularizer of science, is intended to bring to the uninitiated reader scientific facts in an accessible form. In this connection, still the question remains about the specialized education of science journalists: whether he should specialize in a particular field or possess the basics of writing and be able to transpose the complex scientific language.

European studies

The study of Western countries and teaching courses on the related subjects have longstanding and established tradition at MGIMO-University. The basis of this brilliant research and teaching tradition was laid down by such academicians as E.V. Tarle and V.G. Trukhanovsky, Professor L.I. Clove, Y. Borisov, F.I. Notovitch, G.L. Rozanov. Their work in 1940-1960's at the Department of World History at MGIMO-University progressed in following directions: France studies, German studies, American studies. The work resulted in a number of monographs and textbooks on modern history and foreign policy of the studied countries and regions. The aim of the publications was dictated by the goal of the Institute – to prepare the specialists in international affairs primarily for practical work. A close relationship with the Foreign Ministry was "binding advantage," sometimes limiting researchers in choosing periods and subjects for the study.
At the same time the undisputed advantage and quality of regional studies at MGIMO were strengthened by the practical relevance of research, making it a vital and interesting not only for specialists but also for students and researchers from other research centers. Another characteristic of the tradition is the analysis of foreign policy and diplomacy in a close relationship with the socio-economic and political processes. Such an integrated approach to regional geography also formed largely under the influence of institutional profile designed to train highly skilled and versatile specialists in specific countries and regions with a good knowledge of their languages, history, economics, politics, law and culture.

American studies at MGIMO

The "Founding fathers" of American Studies at MGIMO are considered to be A.V. Efimov and L.I. Clove. Alexey Efimov – Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences since 1938, Head of the Department of Modern and Contemporary History and Dean of the Historical School at the Moscow State University - one of the first professors of the Faculty of International Relations MGIMO. Efimov distinguished himself by a broad vision and scope of scientific interests. Back in 1934 he published a monograph "On the history of capitalism in the United States," which initiated a series of research culminating in the fundamental work “The United States. The path of capitalist development (pre-imperialist era)”. Alexey was not only a great scientist but also a great teacher, whose lectures was popular throughout Moscow. His lecture courses, given at the end of the 1940s at MGIMO, became the basis for the first post-war history textbooks USA – "Essays on the history of the United States."

Ibero-American studies at MGIMO

Traditions of the Ibero-American Studies at MGIMO were laid by generation of professors who taught at the MGIMO University in the late 1940s - early 1950s. Among them were such distinguished scholars as historian L.I. Clove and economic geographer I.A. Witwer. The formation of the first generation of ibero- american scholars at MGIMO took place in an atmosphere marked by fresh memories of the Spanish Civil War and the convergence of the USSR and the countries of Latin America, with the majority of which diplomatic relations were established. The outbreak of the "cold war" reduced to a minimum soviet relations with the Spanish-speaking countries. The creative potential of students of Zubok and Witwer was fully revealed only in 1960-1970-ies. when the historical fate of Russia and Latin America once again converged and intertwined.
A number of graduates students of Ibero-American studies (U.V. Dubinin, M.F. Kudachkin, N. Leonov, K.A. Hachaturov, G.E. Hatters) in those years successfully combined practical and scientific activities. MGIMO graduates have contributed greatly to the establishment of the leading centers of domestic Latin American studies - Institute of Latin America and the journal "Latin America."

Oriental studies at MGIMO-University

The Department for the “administration of affairs with Asian nations” at College of Foreign Affairs was established on February 26, 1796 by the imperial decree and the school for Chinese, Manchu, Persian and Turkish languages translators was opened one year later. However, special training of the Russian diplomatic corps, dealing with the relations with Asian nations, was established only in the XIX century. In 1815 Lazarev Institute of Oriental Languages was founded. In 1823 Training Department of Oriental Languages at the Asian Department of the Foreign Ministry of the Russian Empire was established. The tradition was continued by the Soviet Russian Institute of Oriental Studies, which become a leading center for the training of specialists, necessary for most important public institutions and social organizations. Moscow Institute for Oriental Studies inherited traditions and rich library from Lazarev Institute.

From scientific innovation to popularisation of science: a theorwtical modelof science communication

Science communication is process of promotion of scientific ideas from a scientist through scientific community to muss public. Now this research area attracts a lot of attention from scientists. At the same time science communication suffers from the lack of theoretical framework, which can integrate it. In this article we try to contribute to the further theoretical integration of this area. Here we discuss a model of motion and transformation of ideas from the moment of their generation to the time of their appearance in public movies and literature.



The idea of «concept» in the studies of culture

The article is devoted to analyzing the difference between discourses about "concept". It is an attempt to reveal the features of these approaches to the problem of understanding and studying of "concept".
This term is currently at its peak popularity in the human studies, which is connected with its universality and the process of globalization, which generates an interest to studying cultures though these keywords or concepts. Meanwhile, the discourse about "concept" firstly appeared in philosophical literature. Then at the early twentieth century an interest to "concept" arose in Russian linguistics.

Diagnosing the thesis scandal in academic community

Events that occurred in 2013 as a result of illegal assignment of academic degrees, acquired the nature of scandal. According to the author, thesis scandal has provided a deeper understanding of the essence of processes both in the scientific and educational community and in the whole sociohumanitarian sphere of Russian society. The scandal, which affected many deputies of the State Duma, governors of some Russian regions and senior government officials, has attracted attention of Russian political leaders and the general public.

Practical epistemology: the role of peer review in organizing scientific research

The article considers peer review as the main procedure for demarcating scientific knowledge from other kinds thereof, which do not meet the criteria set for research results. The authors examine the history of peer review, which has first been used in early scientific journals and then has become one of the key approaches to distributing funds for research in science foundations, such as the U.S. National Science Foundation.

Scientific community in Algeria: adopting traditions and developing identity

The history of scientific development in Algeria, which has not been long, represents a series of continual rises and falls. The Algerian leadership and researchers have been making efforts to create Algeria’s national science through protection from the western scientific tradition, which is reminiscent of the colonial period of the country, and at the same time adoption of scientific knowledge and scientific institutions functioning principles from abroad, with no organizational or scientific experience of their own.