Roman O. Reinhardt – PhD in World Economy, Senior Lecturer at the Department for Diplomatic Studies, Russia MGIMO-University, Russia, 119454, Moscow, Vernadsky Prospekt, 76. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Sergei V. Pronichkin – PhD in Technical Sciences, Senior Researcher, Federal Research Center “Computer Science and Control” of Russian Academy of Sciences. Russia, 117312, Moscow, Prospect of the 60th Anniversary of October, 9. E-mail: email@example.com.
Nowadays energy diplomacy tends to be one of most relevant and important fields of applied research in International Relations. It is characterized by an interdisciplinary approach being an intersection of political and economic theory, international law, energetics, theory of diplomacy, as well as other fields. Still, numerous research works in the given area both in Russia and abroad are characterized by a number of controversies, such as absence of a common theoretical, methodological basis and conventional terminology, as well as lack of consistency in the choice of scientific paradigms, which leads to divergence of research results and hinders the comparability of the latter. Along with that, in terms of scientific policy it is worth mentioning the absence of a common scientific space in the above field of research, which tends to be shaped by national research cultures and traditions. Throughout the 2000-2010s representatives of the MGIMO scientific school have accumulated experience in dealing with problems of energy diplomacy. However, most of the existing works do not specify the selected political theory paradigms, such as, for instance, realism, liberalism or constructivism. With no intention to conduct a comparative analysis of the aforementioned concepts, the authors of the article outline the key theoretical findings of political realism as the most suitable paradigm for explaining, analyzing and eventually forecasting the recent trends and phenomena given the current geopolitical and economical juncture. They prove the applicability of the proposed model to the OPEC case study and demonstrate its potential practical usefulness for policy-makers in foreign affairs and international energy relations.
Ключевые слова: political realism, energy diplomacy, theory of diplomacy, scientific policy, MGIMO scientific school, OPEC.
1. Álvarez C. B. M. De Ghawar a Palian: Diplomacia energética y estrategias corporativas en los vínculos energéticos entre el golfo Pérsico y la República Popular China, 1990-2010 [From Ghawar to Dalian: Energy Diplomacy and Corporate Strategy in the China-Persian Gulf Relations, 1990-2010]. Estudios De Asia y Africa, 2014, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 301-363.
2. Bayou C. L’europe et la diplomatie énergétique du pouvoir russe défiances et dépendances [Europe and the Energy Diplomacy of Russian Power: Defiance and Dependence]. Revue Internationale Et Strategique, 2007, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 175-186.
3. Bösch F. Energy diplomacy: West Germany, the Soviet Union and the oil crises of the 1970s. Historical Social Research, 2014, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 165-185.
4. Chaban N., Knodt M. Energy diplomacy in the context of multistakeholder diplomacy: The EU and BICS. Cooperation and Conflict, 2015, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 457-474.
5. Chun H. Russia’s energy diplomacy toward Europe and Northeast Asia: a comparative study. Asia Europe Journal, 2009, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 327-343.
6. Dergachev V.A. Geojekonomika [Geoeconomics]. Kiev: Vira-P., 2002. 512 p.
7. Gueldry M., Liang, W. China’s global energy diplomacy: Behavior normalization through economic interdependence or resource neo-mercantilism and power politics? Journal of Chinese Political Science, 2016, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 217-240.
8. Goldstone P.R. Pax Mercatoria – Does Economic Interdependence Bring Peace? MIT CIS Audits of the Conventional Wisdom, 2007, no. 7, pp. 1-4.
9. Huda M. S., Ali S. H. Energy diplomacy in South Asia: Beyond the security paradigm in accessing the TAPI pipeline project. Energy Research and Social Science, 2017, no. 34, pp. 202-213.
10. Kireev A.P. Prikladnaja makrojekonomika [Applied Macroeconomics]. Moscow: Mezhdunarodnye otnoshenija, 2006. 456 p.
11. Konnov V.I. Harakteristika rossijskoj nauchno- issledovatel’skoj kul’tury: vozmozhnosti social’no-psihologicheskogo podhoda [Characterizing Russian Scientific Culture Based on Socio- psychological Approach] Voprosy psihologii, 2012, no. 4, pp. 3-12.
12. Lambert H. Pax economica: la liberté des échanges internationaux fondement nécessaire et suffisant de la paix universelle et permanente [Pax economica: the liberty of international exchanges fundamentally necessary and sufficient for universal and permanent peace]. Paris: Librairie F.Alcan, 1921. 324 p.
13. Lanteigne M. China’s Energy Security and Eurasian Diplomacy: the Case of Turkmenistan. Politics, 2007, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 147-155.
14. Lebedeva M. Resources of Influence in World Politics. Social Sciences. Quarterly Journal of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2014, no. 3, pp. 55-64.
15. Nicolson H. Diplomatija. Per. s angl. pod red. i s predisloviem A.A. Trojanovskogo [Diplomacy. Translated from English and edited by A.A. Trojanovskij]. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo politicheskoj literatury, 1941. 154 p.
16. Proedrou F. Revisiting pipeline politics and diplomacy: from energy security to domestic politics explanations. Problems of Post-Communism, 2017, no. 2, pp. 1-10.
17. Simoniya N.A., Torkunov A.V. Vlijanie geopoliticheskih faktorov na sostojanie mezhdunarodnyh jenergeticheskih rynkov (na primere SShA) [The Impact of Geopolitical Factors on International Energy Markets (On the Example of the USA)]. Polis. Politicheskie issledovanija, 2016, no. 2, pp. 38-48.
18. Simoniya N., Torkunov A. The European Union’s Energy Security and Russia. Social Sciences. Quarterly Journal of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2015, no. 2, pp. 78-89.
19. Wu F. China’s puzzling energy diplomacy towards Iran. Asian Perspective, 2015, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 47-70.
20. The SAGE Handbook of Diplomacy. C. Constantinou, P. Kerr and P. Sharp, eds. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications Inc, 2016. 684 p.
21. Zhiznin S.Z. Jenergeticheskaja diplomatija [Energy diplomacy]. Pravo i upravlenie. XXI vek, 2007, no. 2, pp. 86-95.
22. Zhiznin S.Z. Rossijskaja jenergeticheskaja diplomatija i mezhdunarodnaja jenergeticheskaja bezopasnost’ (geopolitika i jekonomika) [Russian Energy Diplomacy and International Economic Security (Geopolitics and Economics]. Baltijskij region, 2010, no. 1, pp. 8-21.
23. Zonova T.V. Diplomatija: Modeli, formy, metody [Diplomacy: Models, Forms and Methods]. Moscow: Aspekt Press, 2013. 348 p.