Prospects For the Re-Industrialization of Developed Economies (USA, Canada and Australia)

Alexandr N. Zakharov – Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor of World Economy Depart- Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor of World Economy Department, MGIMO–University. 76, Prospect Vernadskogo, Moscow, 119454, Russia. E–mail: a.zakharov@mgimo.ru.
 
Archive: 
Вся статья: 

DOI 10.24833/2071-8160-2018-1-58-213-245 (Read the article in PDF)

The article looks into the most important aspects of the world economy reindustrialization, examines strategies for reindustrialization of the USA, Canada, and Australia. The correlation between the world trend, namely the transition to the digital economy, and the process of reindustrialization within the framework of the Fourth Industrial Revolution is considered. On the basis of comparison and analysis of expert evaluations, statistical data by sectors of industrial production of the USA and Canada it is shown that the absolute advantage of Canada when carrying out the re-industrialization of the economy is skilled labor, specialists with secondary education. The study confirms the fact that amid the reindustrialization on the verge of the Fourth industrial revolution, the availability of skilled labor is a necessary condition for the competitiveness of the state. The Russian Federation faces the situation when conducting the re-industrialization is complicated by adverse international economic and political environment (policy of sanctions against Russia). It is revealed that for the Russian Federation the reindustrialization of the economy shall combine the active modernization of the existing production capacity, while shaping new industries on the basis of technologies of the sixth technology wave. The comparative analysis outlined that under the circumstances the drivers of the new industrialization should be science-based industries, with the latest technologies and the largest number of highly skilled personnel concentrating there.

Key words: reindustrialization, sustainable development, competitiveness, technological readiness, Industry 4.0, digital economy program, share of innovative products, technological structure, production, resourcing, employment, export, import, production chains, USA, Australia, Canada, Russian Federation.

References
1. Bodrunov S.D. Reindustrializatsiia ekonomiki kak strategicheskii prioritet razvitiia Rossii [Reindustrialization of the economy as a strategic priority of Russia’s development]. Ekonomika kachestva, 2014, no. 4(8). Available at: http://eq-journal. ru/pdf/08/Бодрунов.pdf (Accessed: 02.02.2018).
2. Bodrunov S.D. Imperativy, vozmozhnosti i problemy reindustrializatsii [Imperatives, Opportunities and Problems of Reindustrialization]. Ekonomicheskoe vozrozhdenie Rossii, 2013, no. 1 (35), pp. 4-12.
3. Bodrunov S. Integratsiia proizvodstva, nauki i obrazovaniia kak osnova reindustrializatsii RF [Integration of production, science and education as the basis for reindustrialization of the Russian Federation]. Mirovaia ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia, 2015, no. 10, pp. 94-104.
4. Vishnevskaia N. Mobil’nost’ rabochikh mest i rabochei sily [Mobility of workplaces and labor]. Mirovaia ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia, 2015, no. 10, pp. 62-75.
5. Danilova M.A., Zakharov A.N., Ivanian A.G. Zarubezhnyi opyt regulirovaniia territorial’nogo razvitiia [Foreign experience in regulating territorial development]. Rossiiskii vneshneekonomicheskii vestnik, 2001, no. 10, pp. 32-40.
6. Zagashvili V. Zapadnye sanktsii i rossiiskaia ekonomika [Western sanctions and the Russian economy]. Mirovaia ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia, 2015, vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 67-77.
7. Zakharov A.N. Ekonomicheskaia sushchnost’ i mekhanizmy povysheniia konkurentosposobnosti predpriiatiia (mirovoi opyt) [The economic essence and mechanisms of increasing the competitiveness of an enterprise (world experience)]. Rossiiskii vneshneekonomicheskii vestnik, 2004, no. 3, pp. 3-6; no. 4, pp. 11-20.
8. Zakharov A.N. Ratsional’noe prirodopol’zovanie v usloviiakh globalizatsii: mezhdunarodnaia praktika i rossiiskaia deistvitel’nost’ [Rational nature management in the context of globalization: international practice and Russian reality]. Rossiiskii vneshneekonomicheskii vestnik, 2003, no. 8, pp. 38-45.
9. Zakharov A.N. Rol’ mekhanizmov gosudarstvenno- chastnogo partnerstva v reshenii ekonomicheskikh i sotsial’nykh problem Rossii [The role of mechanisms of public-private partnership in solving economic and social problems in Russia]. Mirovoe i natsional’noe khoziaistvo, 2011, no. 1, pp. 2-7.
10. Zakharov A.N. Tendentsii razvitiia real’nogo kapitala mira v mirovoi ekonomike [Trends in the development of real world capital in the world economy]. Rossiiskii vneshneekonomicheskii vestnik, 2014, no. 4, pp. 27-37.
11. Tolkachev S.A. Industriia 4.0 i ee vliianie na tekhnologicheskie osnovy ekonomicheskoi bezopasnosti Rossii [Industry 4.0 and its impact on the technological foundations of Russia’s economic security]. Gumanitarnye nauki. Vestnik Finansovogo universiteta, 2017, no. 1 (25), pp. 86-91.
12. Kholodova O.A. Nepolnyi rabochii den’ kak sposob povysheniia zaniatosti naseleniia [Incomplete working day as a way to increase employment of the population]. Ekonomika truda, 2016, no. 4, pp. 359- 370. DOI: 10.18334/et.3.4.37098
13. Schwab K. The Fourth Industrial Revolution. 2016. 198 p. (Russ. ed.: Chetvertaia promyshlennaia revoliutsiia. Moscow, E Publ., 2017. 208 p.)
14. Christophersona S., Martinb R., Sunleyc P., Tylerd P. Reindustrialising regions: rebuilding the manufacturing economy? Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 2014, no. 7, pp. 351–358.
15. Kornev A.K., Maksimtsova S.I., and Treshchina S.V. Experience in World Industrial Development and the Reindustrialization of the Domestic Economy. Studies on Russian Economic Development, 2015, vol. 26, No. 5, pp. 460–469.
16. Made in America, Again: Fourth Annual Survey of U.S.-Based Manufacturing Executives. The Boston Consulting Group. December, 2015. 13 p.
17. Szirmai A. Industrialisation as an engine of growth in developing countries, 1950– 2005. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 2012, no. 23(4), pp. 406 - 420.
18. Tang J. Industrial structure change and the widening Canada–US labor productivity gap in the post-2000 period. Industrial and Corporate Change, 2016, pp. 1–20.
19. Tregenna F. Characterising Deindustrialisation: An Analysis of Changes in Manufacturing Employment and GDP Internationally. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 2009, no. 33(3), pp.433–466.
20. Wellera S., O’Neill P. De-industrialisation, financialisation and Australia’s macroeconomic trap. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 2014, no. 7, pp. 509–526.
21. Zhou K., Liu T., Zhou L. Industry 4.0: Towards Future. Industrial Opportunities and Challenges, 2015 12th International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery (FSKD).