The Palestinian Problem in the Middle East Policy of the USSR / Russia
Tatyana V. Nosenko – PhD in History, sciences, leading researcher of the Israel and Jewish Communities department of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Russian Federation, 107031, Moscow, Rojdestvenka street, 12. E-mail: email@example.com
Vladimir A. Isaev – Doctor of Economics, Chief Researcher, Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Professor, Institute of Asian and African countries of Moscow State University. Russian Federation, 107031, Moscow, Rozhdestvenka street, 12. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Elena S. Melkumyan – Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor of the Chair of the Modern East of the Russian State Humanitarian University, and a leading researcher at the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Russian Federation, 107031, Moscow, Rozhdestvenka street, 12. E-mail: email@example.com.
The article reveals the stages in the formation of the USSR policy in the field of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict resolution, the features of the developed policy and practical conclusions that could be useful in advancing the current Middle East policy of the Russian Federation.
Initially, the Soviet Union perceived the Palestinian theme primarily from the point of view of the problem of refugees. However, Moscow increasingly felt the need for reliable allies in the region. The movement for cooperation between the Palestine Liberation Organization and the USSR was bilateral: the PLO departed from revolutionary romanticism and began to follow a pragmatic line to expand contacts with opponents of Israel. Moscow began to consider the activities of the PLO as part of the national liberation movement, took a sharply anti-Israeli stance. Such a distortion led to a loss of freedom of maneuver in the region and to the announcement of deliberately non-constructive proposals for a Palestinian-Israeli settlement. Only since 1985 the USSR returned to a more flexible position, which sought to combine the interests of the Palestinian people and Israel.
At the present stage, Russian diplomacy uses Soviet experience and connections, especially in the sphere of personal contacts. But Russia’s role in the Middle East conflict resolution has decreased due to subjective and objective reasons. Against the backdrop of the Arab Spring and the Civil War in Syria, Palestinian issues have become secondary in the agenda of Moscow, which, however, can lead to a new surge of violence and tension. Special relations with the Palestinian national liberation movement have always been an advantage of Soviet and then Russian diplomacy. The authors believe that this advantage should be used more actively to strengthen Russia’s positions in the region.
Key words: Palestine, Israel, conflict, PLO, Soviet diplomacy, Middle East.
1. Antiukhova E.A. «Arabskaia vesna»: novye mekhanizmy smeny avtoritarnykh rezhimov [The Arab spring: new mechanisms of authoritarian regime change]. Vestnik MGIMO Universiteta – MGIMO Review of International Relations, 2015, no. 2 (41), pp. 201-209. (In Russian)
2. Zviagel’skaia I.D. Blizhnevostochnyi klinch. Konflikty na Blizhnem Vostoke i politika Rossii [Middle East deadlock. Conclicts in the Middle East and the Russian policy]. Moscow, Aspekt Press Publ., 2014. 208 p. (In Russian)
3. Kasatkin P.I., Ivkina N.V. «Miagkaia sila» vo vneshnepoliticheskoi strategii Rossii: ot teorii k praktike [Soft power in the Russian foreign policy strategy: from theory to practice]. Pravo i upravlenie. XXI vek, 2015, no. 2 (35), pp. 107-112. (In Russian)
4. Loshkarev I.D. Rol’ diaspor v sovremennoi mirovoi politike [The role of diasporas in the current world politics]. Vestnik MGIMO Universiteta – MGIMO Review of International Relations, 2015, no. 2 (41), pp. 127-133. (In Russian)
5. Morozov V.M. Izrail’ i sredizemnomorskaia bezopasnost’ [Israel and the Medditerranian security]. Mezhdunarodnye protsessy - International Trends, 2012, vol. 10, no. 30, pp. 91-97. (In Russian)
6. Morozov V.M. Palestino-izrail’skie mirnye peregovory 1995-2001 gg. [Palestinian-Israeli peace negotiations in 1995-2001] Vostokovednyi sbornik [Oriental studies collection]. Moscow, Institut izucheniia Izrailia i Blizhnego Vostoka, 2002. Pp. 76-87. (In Russian)
7. Nosenko T.V. Printsip dvukh gosudarstv v uregulirovanii palestino-izrail’skogo konflikta: vozmozhna li al’ternativa? [Two state principle in Israeli-Palestinian conflict resolution: possible alternatives?]. Problemy i perspektivy uregulirovaniia na Blizhnem Vostoke [Problems and prospects of conflict resolution in thr Middle East]. Moscow, Institut vostokovedeniia RAN Publ., 2010. Pp. 65-89. (In Russian)
8. Nosenko T.V., Semenchenko N.A. Naprasnaia vrazhda. Ocherki sovetsko-izrail’skikh otnoshenii 1948-1991 gg. [Wasted truth. Outlines of Soviet-Israeli relation, 1948-1991]. Moscow, Institut vostokovedeniia RAN Publ., 2015. 260 p. (In Russian)
9. Pankin B. Sto oborvannykh dnei [One hundred of cut days]. Moscow, Sovershenno sekretno Publ., 1993. 272 p. (In Russian)
10. Primakov E.M. Blizhnii Vostok na stsene i za kulisami (vtoraia polovina XX – nachalo XXI veka) [Middle East on the scene and behind the curtain]. Moscow, Rossiiskaia gazeta Publ., 2006. 384 p. (in Russian)
11. SSSR i blizhnevostochnoe uregulirovanie. 1967-1986. Dokumenty i materialy [USSR and the Middle East conflict-resolution. 1967-1986. Documents and materials]. Moscow, Izdatel’stvo politicheskoi literatury, 1989. 511 p. (In Russian)
12. Freedman R.O. Soviet Policy Towards Israel under Gorbachev. New York-Westport, Praeger, 1991. 141 p.
13. International Documents on Palestine. 1974. Beirut: The Institute for Palestine Studies, 2007. 604 p.
14. Shamir Y. Israel’s Role in a Changing Middle East. The Israel-Arab Reader. A Documentary History of the Middle East conflict. Ed. by Laqueur W., Rubin B. L. Penguin Books, 2008. Pp. 244-247.