Cyclical Dynamics of the «External» and «Internal» Environments of Business Organizations in GR-Management

Andrey A. Degtyarev – PhD, Deputy Chair, Department of Political Theory, School of Governance and Politics, MGIMO-University, Russia, 119454, Moscow, Vernadsky Prospekt, 76.
 
 
Mikhail D. Bondarev – Master Student, School of Governance and Politics, MGIMO-University, Russia, 119454, Moscow, Vernadsky Prospekt, 76.
 
 
Aleksey S. Teteryuk – Postgraduate Student, School of Governance and Politics, MGIMO-University, Russia, 119454, Moscow, Vernadsky Prospekt, 76.
 
Archive: 
Вся статья: 

DOI 10.24833/2071-8160-2018-1-58-63-93 (Read the article in PDF)

Within current conditions large business seeks to more actively influence processes of public state policy formulation and implementation connected with regulation of the economy and allocation of public resources. To ensure growing and systemic influence on the processes of government decision making, corporations promote economic interests by creating systems of controlled communications and relations with state bodies (SB). This field of professional activity identified as «GR» (Government Relations) is a specific type of management activity, specific cross-sectoral (cross-area) management of interactions between business companies (and other non-state actors) and the state authorities, located at the crossing of three basic sectors of governance (government, business and social (nonprofit) organizations). Professional functions on establishing and maintaining relations between business and government are conducted by GR-departments of large companies, specialized consulting firms and business associations. The complexity of those activities for business organizations proceeds from its specific location at the intersection of two environments (sectors): internal (in-house) and external (political and public) ones. This means that GR-specialist tries to consider the interests of these counterparties and identify points of intersection, where common interests can develop into business cooperation, and this may also contribute to the constructive involvement of business in shaping public policy. During such activities GR-specialist regularly faces the practical problems of frequent temporary error (“temporal asynchrony”) and low level of spatial contingency (“spatial incongruence”) between the “sectoral (environmental)” types of managerial dynamics and their autonomous rhythms and paces, special sectoral functioning and development strategies, deployed within each of these sectors (industry business strategy vs public policy area) and specific phases of the cycles of corporate and public governance, yet weakly interlinked. The authors stem from the common idea according to which a basic methodological prerequisite for the analysis, design and implementation of the effective and efficient GR-work is the development of a cycle model of the so-called “cross-sectoral” management, which would consider complex dynamics of the «internal» corporate processes as well as «external » public-management cycles.

Key words: interaction with state bodies, Government Relations, GR-management, lobbying, policy and corporate governance cycles, corporate and functional management strategies, phases of crosssectoral (cross-areal) GR-management.

References
1. Avtonomov A.S. Azbuka lobbirovaniia [The ABC of lobbying]. Moscow. IRIS Publ., 2009. 109 p. (In Russian).
2. Biznes i vlast’ v Rossii: teoriia i praktika vzaimodeistviia [Business and authority in Russia: theory and practice of interaction] / Ed. by A. N. Shokhin. Moscow, NIU VShJe Publ., 2011. 352 p. (In Russian).
3. Vikhansky O.S. Strategicheskoe upravlenie [Strategic Management]. Moscow, Gardarika Publ., 1998. 164 p. (In Russian).
4. Degtyarev A. A. Protsess priniatiia i osushchestvleniia reshenii v publichno-gosudarstvennoi politike: dinamicheskii tsikl i ego osnovnye fazy [Process of decisionmaking in public policy: dynamic cycle and its main phases]. Polis. Politicheskie issledovaniia - Polis. Political Studies, 2004, no. 4, pp. 158-168. (In Russian).
5. Degtyarev A.A. Problema ucheta «vneshnikh » i «vnutrennikh» pravil pri osushchestvlenii GR-raboty v sovremennoi Rossii [Problem of considering external and internal rules of conducting GR-activity in modern Russia]. Korporativnoe upravlenie i sotsial’naia otvetstvennost’ biznesa. Moscow, MGIMO-Universitet Publ., 2013. pp. 270-282. (In Russian).
6. Degtyarev A.A. Ekspertnye metody v analize urovnia rezul’tativnosti i effektivnosti osushchestvleniia vzaimodeistviia s organami gosudarstvennoi vlasti v sovremennoi Rossii [Expert methods in analysis of level of efficacy and effectiveness of conducting interaction with state authorities in modern Russia]. Ed. by L.I. Ilyicheva. Moscow, Analitik Publ., 2015. 400 p. (In Russian).
7. Zobnin A.V. GR-menedzhment na novom etape razvitiia [GR-management at new stage of development]. Labirint: Zhurnal sotsial’no-gumanitarnykh issledovanii, 2012. no. 2, pp. 78-86. (In Russian).
8. Ilyin M. V. Khronopoliticheskoe izmerenie: za predelami Povsednevnosti i Istorii [Chronopolitical Dimension: beyond Everyday Life and History]. Polis: Politicheskie issledovaniia - Polis. Political Studies, 1996, no. 1, pp. 55-77. (In Russian).
9. Kozlov S.V. Vliianie stadii zhiznennogo tsikla predpriiatiia na formirovanie strategii razvitiia [Influence of life cycle phases of enterprise on formulation of development strategy]. Vestnik Volzhskogo universiteta - Vestnik of Volzhskiy University, 2009, no. 17, pp. 15-28. (In Russian). 10. Kulakova T.A. Government Relations v protsesse priniatiia politicheskikh reshenii [Government Relations in decision making process]. Politicheskaia ekspertiza: POLITEKS. 2005. no. 2, pp. 226-237. (In Russian).
11. Levina M. I. Modeli protsessa priniatiia reshenii i parlamentskii protsess [Models of decision making process and parliamentary process]. Almanac of Comparative Law, 2002, pp. 274-291. (In Russian).
12. Malenkov Y.A. O klassifikatsiiakh strategii kompanii [About classification of corporate strategies]. Emitent: sushchestvennye fakty, sobytiia, deistviia, 2006, no. 42. 17 p. Available at: http://www.cfin.ru/ management/strategy/concepts/classification. shtml (Accessed (In Russian).
13. Mintusov I.E., Filatova O.G. GR: teoriia i praktika [GR: theory and practice]. Saint-Petersburg, St. Petersburg university Publ., 2013. 180 p. (In Russian).
14. Molchanova O.P. Strategicheskii menedzhment nekommercheskikh organizatsii [Strategic management of nongovernmental organizations]. Moscow, Iurait Publ., 2016. 261 p. (In Russian).
15. Orekhov S.A., Sokolov M.A., Mad’iarov M.A., Shamarova G.M. Handbook po distsipline «Analiz i razrabotka korporativnoi strategii» [Handbook on discipline “analysis and development of corporate strategy”]. Moscow, Sinergiia Publ., 2014. 192 p. (In Russian).
16. Pavroz A.V. Government Relations kak institut sotsial’no-politicheskogo vzaimodeistviia [Government Relations as institute of social and political interaction]. Politicheskaia ekspertiza: POLITEKS, 2005, no. 2, pp. 238-251. (In Russian).
17. Swaim R. The Strategic Drucker: Growth Strategies and Marketing Insights from the Works of Peter Drucker. Jossey-Bass, 2009. 250 p. (Russ. ed.: Strategii upravleniia biznesom Pitera Drukera. Saint-Petersburg, Piter Publ., 2011. 416 p.).
18. Smorgunov L.V. Vzaimodeistvie gosudarstva i biznesa v Rossii: ot lobbirovaniia k korporativnoi publichnoi politike [Interaction between state and business in Russia: from lobbying to corporate public policy]. Nauka i obrazovanie: khoziaistvo i ekonomika; predprinimatel’stvo, pravo i upravlenie, 2016, no. 4, pp. 100-104. (In Russian).
19. Smorgunov L.V. GR-sviazi s gosudarstvom: teoriia, praktika i mekhanizmy vzaimodeistviia biznesa i grazhdanskogo obshchestva s gosudarstvom [GR-networks with state: theory, practice and mechanisms of interaction between business and civil society with the state: textbook]. Moscow, ROSSPEN Publ., 2011. 407 p. (In Russian).
20. Filonovich S.R., Kuleshevich E.I. Teoriia zhiznennykh tsiklov organizatsii I. Adizesa i rossiiskaia deistvitel’nost’ [Theory of life cycles of organization of I. Adizes and Russian reality]. Sociological Studies, 1996, no. 10, pp. 63-71. (In Russian).
21. Farnel’ F. Zh. Lobbirovanie: strategii i tekhniki vmeshatel’stva [Lobbying: strategies and techniques of interference]. Paris, Jouve Publ., 1994. 118 p. (In Russian).
22. Khasbi D. Strategicheskii menedzhment [Strategic management]. Moscow, Kontur Publ., 1998. 198 p. (In Russian).
23. Anderson J. Public Policymaking: An Introduction. Boston, Cengage Learning, 2004. 352 p.
24. Dunn W. Public Policy Analysis: An Introduction. Englewood Cliffs, 1994. 480 p.
25. Gelak D. Lobbying and Advocacy. The- Capitol.Net Publ., 2008. 516 p.
26. Greitens J.T., Joaquin E.M. Policy Typology and Performance Measurement // Public Performance and Management Review. 2010. vol. 33., pp. 555-570.
27. Harsanyi F., Allen G. Achieving the Strategic Potential of Public Affairs // The SAGE Handbook of International Corporate and Public Affairs / Ed. by P. Harris, C. Fleisher. London: SAGE, 2017. 728 p.
28. Кingdon J. Agendas, Alternatives and Public Policies. Boston: Little, Brown & Co. 1984. 240 p.
29. Lasswell H. The Decision Process: Seven Categories of Functional Analysis. College Park. University of Maryland Press, 1956.
30. Libby P. The Lobbying Strategy Handbook. Sage Publ., 2012. 301 p.
31. Simon H. Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administrative Organizations. The Free Press, N.Y., 1947. 358 p.
32. Wildavsky A. The Policy Cycle. Beverly Hills (LA), 1978. 332 p.