The Phenomenon of «Islamic State»

Andrei V. Fedorchenko – Doctor of Sci. (Economics), Professor, Director of the Middle East Studies Center of the Institute of International Studies at MGIMO (University) MFA of Russia. E-mail: vasfedor@mail.ru
 
 
 
Alexander V. Krylov – Doctor of Sci. (History), Senior Researcher of the Middle East Studies Center of the Institute of International Studies at MGIMO (University) MFA of Russia. E-mail: avkrylov2004@mail.ru.
 
 
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The article discusses the beginning of the ISIS and traces back its organizational and territorial roots. The authors present the causal analysis of structural and internal factors that contributed to the formation of the Islamic state. The authors believe that ISIS can be destroyed only by eliminating the factors that led to its creation.    

On the first day of the holy month of Ramadan July 29, 2014, jihadist organization "Islamic State" (IG), formerly known as "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" (ISIS), announced the creation of a "caliphate" in the areas controlled by its militants in Iraq and Syria. Using the weakness of state power and poignancy of inter-ethnic, inter-tribal conflicts, the leaders of the ISIS were able to multiply the number of its supporters and increase their influence. The crisis of "secular ideologies" (primarily Western liberalism and communism), greatly contributed to the success of "Islamic boom", including the creation of the ISIS. It prompted broad appeal to the Muslim masses on the ideological basis closer to them in spirit, mentality, purely religious values. The ISIS is funded better than any other extremist group before it. At least five sources of replenishment of its finances can be named. Current goals of jihadists include the use of a power vacuum, bringing chaos in the various territories in the Muslim world, and prepare the ground for the transition to the ultimate goal of the program, namely the re-establishment, as it is declared, of the powerful theocratic state - the Caliphate, in the likeness of that which existed in Middle Ages, during the victorious Muslim conquests in the VII-IX centuries.

So, the effectiveness of the fight against the ISIS depends on a combination of political, military, economic and social measures. Furthermore, it should be coordinated internationally. International coordination of anti-terrorist activities of Russia with the West and the East should bring positive results.

Key words: «Islamic State», ISIS, Syria, Iraq, Islamism, Islamic Radicalism, Terrorism, International Security, the Russian Federation.

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