Khakhalkina Elena V. – PhD (History), Associate Professor at the Chair of Modern, Contemporary History and International Relations, Department of History, National Research Tomsk State University. E-mail: email@example.com
The UK European Union membership referendum 2016 and its results actualized the study of the British initiatives in the sphere of integration before the entry into the European Economic Community in 1973. The article is devoted to the little-known in Russian historiography “Grand Design” of H. Macmillan, nominated in the wake of the failure of the Suez operation against Egypt in 1956. Plan with such bright and eye-catching name suggested the creation of a broad integration group in Europe as alternative with Britain as a leader to the preparing for the establishment of projects of the European Economic Community and the European Atomic energy community. The project was designed to restore the prestige of the Conservative Party and to strengthen the shaky position of Britain in NATO and European a airs after Suez Crisis. At the same time the emergence of the plan re ected the desire of the Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan to weaken the struggle inside political establishment between supporters and opponents of the country’s full- edged participation in the European integration and take the lead in the integration movement from France. Analysis of the content of the project and attempts to implement it within the framework of a Free Trade Area (FTA) reveals the essence of the “special position” of the UK towards supranational integration and the British vision of the future of European integration. Modern United Kingdom appeared in the new European realities after the Referendum on the country's membership in the European Union and returns to the starting point on the path of supranational integration and to the search for its place in Europe. In these circumstances, the ideas expressed by British politicians more than half a century ago, may again prove to be demanded and relevant.
Key words: “Grand Design”, Great Britain, H. Macmillan, Charles de Gaulle, the Free Trade Area, the Anglo-American relations, the Commonwealth, the system of imperial preferences, the Common Market, the Organization for European Economic Cooperation.
1. Arzakanjan M.C. Politicheskaja istorija Francii XX v [Political history of XX century France]. Мoscow: Visshaja shkola Publ., 2003. 156 p.(In Russian)
2. De Goll' Sh. Memuary nadezhd. Obnovlenie 1958-1962 gg. Evropa [Memoirs of hope. Update 1958-1962 gg. Europe] Novaja i novejshaja istorija – Modern and Contemporary History. 1994. No 4-5. pp. 299-324. (In Russian)
3. Evratom: pravovye problemyv [Euratom: legal problems]. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1992. 238 p. (In Russian)
4. Zapadnaja Evropa i SShA. Ocherk politicheskih vzaimootnoshenij [Western Europe and the United States. An outline of political relations]. ed. by D.E. Mel'nikova. Moscow: Mysl’ Publ., 1968. 447 p. (In Russian)
5. Kapitonova N.K., Romanova E.V. Istorija vneshnej politiki Velikobritanii [The history of British foreign policy]. Moscow: Mezhdunarodnye otnoshenija, 2016. 840 p. (In Russian)
6. Lipkin M.A. Britanija v poiskah Evropy: dolgij put' v EJeS, 1957-1974 gg [Britain in search of Europe: a long way in the UES, 1957-1974]. St Peterburg, Aletejja, 2009. 240 p. (In Russian)
7. Makljejn D. Vneshnjaja politika Anglii posle Sujeca [Foreign policy of England after Suez.]. Moscow: Progress Publ., 1972. 460 p. (In Russian)
8. Mel'chionni M.-G. Vlijanie Sujeckogo krizisa na peregovory v Brjussele [The impact of the Suez crisis in the negotiations in Brussels]. Istorija evropejskoj integracii. Moscow: Institut vseobshhej istorii RAN, 1995. Pp.
141-160. (In Russian)
9. Pelipas' M.Ja. Skovannye odnoj cep'ju: politika SShA i Velikobritanii na Blizhnem i Srednem Vostoke v 1945-1956 gg [Chained: the US and UK policy in the Middle East in the 1945-1956]. Tomsk: Izd-vo Tomskogo universiteta,
2003. 363 p. (In Russian)
10. Rumjancev V.P. «Novyj frontir» administracii Dzh.F. Kennedi na Blizhnem i Srednem Vostoke (1961-1963 gg.) [“New Frontier” of the Administration of J.F. Kennedy and the Middle East (1961-1963)]. Tomsk: Izdatel'skij
dom Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta Publ., 2015. 402 p. (In Russian)
11. Chubar'jan A.O. Rossijskij evropeizm [Russian Europeanism]. Moscow: OLMA-PRESS, 2006. 416 p. (In Russian)
12. Aldcroft D.H. The European economy. 1914-1970. L.: Croom Helm, 1978. 251 p.
13. Ashton N. Kennedy, Macmillan and the Cold War: Irony of Interdependence. Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2002. 288 p.
14. British documents on the End of Empire. Series A. Vol. 3. The Conservative Government and the End of Empire. 1957-1964. Part. I. High Policy, Political and Constitutional Change. Ed. by R. Hyam and Wm Roger Louis.
Stationery Office, London, 2000. 825 p.
15. Britain and European integration. A Documentary history, 1945 -1999. Routledge, London, New York, 2000. 389 p.
16. British imperial policy and decolonization. 1938-1964. Vol. 2. 1951-1964. Ed. by A.N. Porter and A.J. Stockwell. Palgrave Macmillan, London, 1989. 601 p.
17. Camps M. Britain and the European Community, 1955-1963. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1964. 558 p.
18. Foreign relations of the United States. 1955-1957. Vol. IV. Western Security and Integration. Wash.: United States Government Printing Office, 1986. 659 p.
19. Foundation Jean Monnet pour l’Europe. AMK (The Action Committee for the United States of Europe) 82/2/11. Note on the Special Supplement to Western World. February 1960.
20. From reconstruction to integration: Britain and Europe since 1945. Ed. by B. Brivati and H. Jones. Leicester, Leicester University Press, 1993. 260 p.
21. George S. An awkward partner: Britain in the European Community. N.Y., 1998. 298 p.
22. Glen Jiauque J. The Atlantic Powers and the Reorganization of Western Europe, 1955-1963. Chapel Hill, London, 2002. 326 p.
23. Great Britain. Hansard. Parliament. House of Commons. Parliamentary Debates. European Trade Policy. 26 November 1956. URL: http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1956/nov/26/european-trade-policy
24. Great Britain. Hansard. Parliament. House of Commons. Parliamentary Debates. Commonwealth and Empire Resources. 3 May 1957. Col. 584-585. URL: 587.http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1957/may/03/
25. Great Britain. Hansard. Parliament. House of Commons. Parliamentary Debates. Debate on the Address. 5 November 1957. Col. 32-33. URL: http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1957/nov/05/debateon-
26. Great Britain. Hansard. Parliament. House of Commons. Parliamentary Debates. Debate on the Address. 6 November 1957. Col. 278-279. URL: http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1957/nov/06/debateon-
27. Heinlein F. British government policy and decolonization, 1945-1963: Scrutinizing the official mind. Frank Cass., London, 2002. 350 p.
28. Lynch F.M.B. De Gaulle’s First Veto: France, the Rueff Plan and the Free Trade Area. Contemporary European History, 2000, No 9, pp. 111-135.
29. Macmillan H. Riding the storm. 1956-1959. Macmillan, London, 1971. 786 p.
30. Mangold P. The Almost Impossible Ally: Harold Macmillan and Charles de Gaulle. I.B. Tauris, London, 2006. 288 p.
31. Middleton D. The Supreme Choice. Britain and Europe. N.Y.: A. Knopf, 1963. 292 p.
32. Moravcsik A. The Choice for Europe. Social Purpose and State Power from Messina to Maastricht. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1998. 528 p.
33. Northedge F.S. British Foreign Policy. The Process of Readjustment. 1945-1961. George Allen and Unwin, London, 1962. 261 p.
34. Schrafstetter S., Twegge S. Avoiding Armageddon: Europe, the United States and the Struggle for Nuclear Nonprofiliation. Green Publishing Group, London, 2004. 302 p.
35. The Times. 16 May 1957.
36. Tratt J. The Macmillan government and Europe. A study in the Process of Policy Development. Macmillan, Basingstoke, 1996. 251 p.
37. Turner J. Macmillan. Essex, Harlow, 1994. 288 p.
38. Young J. W. Britain and the European Unity, 1945-1999. Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2000. 252 p.
39. Winand P. Eisenhower, Kennedy and the United States of Europe. St Martin’s Press, New York, 1996. 432 p.