Koudryavtseva E.P.

Establishment of the First Russian Consulates in China in 1851–1852

The First Russian consulates in Western China were established in 1851. Russian representatives I. Zakharov and A. Tatarinov arrived in Kulja and Chuguchak in early 1852. Numerous reports of the Russian consuls to the Asian Department of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs contain highly interesting material concerning the first diplomatic contacts between Russia and China. None of the documents from the Archive of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs were used by national historians, they only mentioned the fact, that according to the Treaty of Kulja Chinese cities Yili and Tarbagatai hosted Russian representatives that looked after trade.

Russian Embassy Churches and Priest During the Reign of Nicholas I

The article is devoted to activity of orthodox priests in Russian embassies and missions. All Russian embassies in Europe had churches and family chapels with the personnel. They sub-mitted to ambassadors or heads of Russian missions, were accountable to the Russian Foreign Ministry that paid them salary. Most of the Holy Synod also controlled them. During the reign of Nicholas I the priests were appointed to those eastern countries with whom Russia wanted to open up diplomatic relations.